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Linux基础-ss命令
2014-04-04 11:21:39
标签: 网络整理 Linux ss 命令

    ss是Socket Statistics的缩写。顾名思义,ss命令可以用来获取socket统计信息,它可以显示和netstat类似的内容。但ss的优势在于它能够显示更多更详细的有关TCP和连接状态的信息,而且比netstat更快速更高效。

    当服务器的socket连接数量变得非常大时,无论是使用netstat命令还是直接cat /proc/net/tcp,执行速度都会很慢。可能你不会有切身的感受,但请相信我,当服务器维持的连接达到上万个的时候,使用netstat等于浪费 生命,而用ss才是节省时间。

    天下武功唯快不破。ss快的秘诀在于,它利用到了TCP协议栈中tcp_diag。tcp_diag是一个用于分析统计的模块,可以获得Linux 内核中第一手的信息,这就确保了ss的快捷高效。当然,如果你的系统中没有tcp_diag,ss也可以正常运行,只是效率会变得稍慢。(但仍然比 netstat要快。)

ss的基本语法和参数
1.命令格式:
ss [参数]
ss [参数] [过滤]
2.命令功能:
ss(Socket Statistics的缩写)命令可以用来获取 socket统计信息,此命令输出的结果类似于 netstat输出的内容,但它能显示更多更详细的 TCP连接状态的信息,且比 netstat 更快速高效。它使用了 TCP协议栈中 tcp_diag(是一个用于分析统计的模块),能直接从获得第一手内核信息,这就使得 ss命令快捷高效。在没有 tcp_diag,ss也可以正常运行。
3.命令参数:
-h, --help	 帮助信息
-V, --version	程序版本信息
-n, --numeric	不解析服务名称
-r, --resolve        解析主机名
-a, --all	 显示所有套接字(sockets)
-l, --listening	显示监听状态的套接字(sockets)
-o, --options        显示计时器信息
-e, --extended       显示详细的套接字(sockets)信息
-m, --memory         显示套接字(socket)的内存使用情况
-p, --processes	显示使用套接字(socket)的进程
-i, --info	 显示 TCP内部信息
-s, --summary	显示套接字(socket)使用概况
-4, --ipv4           仅显示IPv4的套接字(sockets)
-6, --ipv6           仅显示IPv6的套接字(sockets)
-0, --packet	        显示 PACKET 套接字(socket)
-t, --tcp	 仅显示 TCP套接字(sockets)
-u, --udp	 仅显示 UCP套接字(sockets)
-d, --dccp	 仅显示 DCCP套接字(sockets)
-w, --raw	 仅显示 RAW套接字(sockets)
-x, --unix	 仅显示 Unix套接字(sockets)
-f, --family=FAMILY  显示 FAMILY类型的套接字(sockets),FAMILY可选,支持  unix, inet, inet6, link, netlink
-A, --query=QUERY, --socket=QUERY
      QUERY := {all|inet|tcp|udp|raw|unix|packet|netlink}[,QUERY]
-D, --diag=FILE     将原始TCP套接字(sockets)信息转储到文件
 -F, --filter=FILE   从文件中都去过滤器信息
       FILTER := [ state TCP-STATE ] [ EXPRESSION ]
ss使用实例

  显示TCP连接

    命令:

ss -t -a

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -t -a
State      Recv-Q Send-Q                                Local Address:Port                                    Peer Address:Port   
LISTEN     0      0                                         127.0.0.1:smux                                               *:*       
LISTEN     0      0                                                 *:3690                                               *:*       
LISTEN     0      0                                                 *:ssh                                                *:*       
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.120.204:ssh                                        10.2.0.68:49368   
[root@localhost ~]#

  显示 Sockets 摘要

    命令:

ss -s

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -s
Total: 34 (kernel 48)
TCP:   4 (estab 1, closed 0, orphaned 0, synrecv 0, timewait 0/0), ports 3

Transport Total     IP        IPv6
*         48        -         -        
RAW       0         0         0        
UDP       5         5         0        
TCP       4         4         0        
INET      9         9         0        
FRAG      0         0         0        

[root@localhost ~]#

    说明:列出当前的established, closed, orphaned and waiting TCP sockets

  列出所有打开的网络连接端口

    命令:

ss -l

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -l
Recv-Q Send-Q                                     Local Address:Port                                         Peer Address:Port   
0      0                                              127.0.0.1:smux                                                    *:*       
0      0                                                      *:3690                                                    *:*       
0      0                                                      *:ssh                                                     *:*       
[root@localhost ~]#

  查看进程使用的socket

    命令:

ss -pl

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -pl
Recv-Q Send-Q                                     Local Address:Port                                         Peer Address:Port   
0      0                                              127.0.0.1:smux                                                    *:*        users:(("snmpd",2716,8))
0      0                                                      *:3690                                                    *:*        users:(("svnserve",3590,3))
0      0                                                      *:ssh                                                     *:*        users:(("sshd",2735,3))
[root@localhost ~]#

  找出打开套接字/端口应用程序

    命令:

ss -lp | grep 3306

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -lp|grep 1935
0      0                            *:1935                          *:*        users:(("fmsedge",2913,18))
0      0                    127.0.0.1:19350                         *:*        users:(("fmsedge",2913,17))
[root@localhost ~]# ss -lp|grep 3306
0      0                            *:3306                          *:*        users:(("mysqld",2871,10))
[root@localhost ~]#

  显示所有UDP Sockets

    命令:

ss -u -a

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -u -a
State      Recv-Q Send-Q                                Local Address:Port                                    Peer Address:Port   
UNCONN     0      0                                         127.0.0.1:syslog                                             *:*       
UNCONN     0      0                                                 *:snmp                                               *:*       
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.120.203:39641                                  10.58.119.119:domain 
[root@localhost ~]#

  显示所有状态为established的SMTP连接

    命令:

ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )'

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -o state established '( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )' 
Recv-Q Send-Q                                     Local Address:Port                                         Peer Address:Port   
[root@localhost ~]#

  显示所有状态为Established的HTTP连接

    命令:

ss -o state established '( dport = :http or sport = :http )'

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss -o state established '( dport = :http or sport = :http )' 
Recv-Q Send-Q                                     Local Address:Port                                         Peer Address:Port   
0      0                                              75.126.153.214:2164                                        192.168.10.42:http    
[root@localhost ~]#

  列举出处于 FIN-WAIT-1状态的源端口为 80或者 443,目标网络为 193.233.7/24所有 tcp套接字

    命令:

ss -o state fin-wait-1 '( sport = :http or sport = :https )' dst 193.233.7/24

  用TCP 状态过滤Sockets:

    命令:

ss -4 state FILTER-NAME-HERE 
ss -6 state FILTER-NAME-HERE

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]#ss -4 state closing 
Recv-Q Send-Q                                                  Local Address:Port                                                      Peer Address:Port 
1      11094                                                  75.126.153.214:http                                                      192.168.10.42:4669

    说明:

    FILTER-NAME-HERE 可以代表以下任何一个:

        established

        syn-sent

        syn-recv

        fin-wait-1

        fin-wait-2

        time-wait

        closed

        close-wait

        last-ack

        listen

        closing

        all : 所有以上状态

        connected : 除了listen and closed的所有状态

        synchronized :所有已连接的状态除了syn-sent

        bucket : 显示状态为maintained as minisockets,如:time-wait和syn-recv.

        big : 和bucket相反.

  匹配远程地址和端口号

    命令:

ss dst ADDRESS_PATTERN
ss dst 192.168.1.5
ss dst 192.168.119.113:http 
ss dst 192.168.119.113:smtp 
ss dst 192.168.119.113:443

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss dst 192.168.119.113
State      Recv-Q Send-Q                                Local Address:Port                                    Peer Address:Port   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16014                                192.168.119.113:20229   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16014                                192.168.119.113:61056   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16014                                192.168.119.113:61623   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16014                                192.168.119.113:60924   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16050                                192.168.119.113:43701   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16073                                192.168.119.113:32930   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16073                                192.168.119.113:49318   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16014                                192.168.119.113:3844    
[root@localhost ~]# ss dst 192.168.119.113:http
State      Recv-Q Send-Q                                Local Address:Port                                    Peer Address:Port   
[root@localhost ~]# ss dst 192.168.119.113:3844
State      Recv-Q Send-Q                                Local Address:Port                                    Peer Address:Port   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16014                                192.168.119.113:3844    
[root@localhost ~]#

  匹配本地地址和端口号

    命令:

ss src ADDRESS_PATTERN
ss src 192.168.119.103
ss src 192.168.119.103:http
ss src 192.168.119.103:80
ss src 192.168.119.103:smtp
ss src 192.168.119.103:25

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss src 192.168.119.103:16021
State      Recv-Q Send-Q                                Local Address:Port                                    Peer Address:Port   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:63054   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:62894   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:63055   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:2274    
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:44784   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:7233    
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.103:58660   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                192.168.119.201:44822   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:56737   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:57487   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:56736   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:64652   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:56586   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:64653   
ESTAB      0      0                                   192.168.119.103:16021                                     10.2.1.206:56587   
[root@localhost ~]#

  将本地或者远程端口和一个数比较

    命令:

ss dport OP PORT 
ss sport OP PORT

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# ss  sport = :http 
[root@localhost ~]# ss  dport = :http 
[root@localhost ~]# ss  dport \> :1024 
[root@localhost ~]# ss  sport \> :1024 
[root@localhost ~]# ss sport \< :32000 
[root@localhost ~]# ss  sport eq :22 
[root@localhost ~]# ss  dport != :22 
[root@localhost ~]# ss  state connected sport = :http 
[root@localhost ~]# ss \( sport = :http or sport = :https \) 
[root@localhost ~]# ss -o state fin-wait-1 \( sport = :http or sport = :https \) dst 192.168.1/24

    说明:

    ss dport OP PORT 远程端口和一个数比较;ss sport OP PORT 本地端口和一个数比较。

    OP 可以代表以下任意一个: 

        <= or le : 小于或等于端口号

        >= or ge : 大于或等于端口号

        == or eq : 等于端口号

        != or ne : 不等于端口号

        < or gt : 小于端口号

        > or lt : 大于端口号

  ss 和 netstat 效率对比

    命令:

time netstat -at
time ss

    输出:

[root@localhost ~]# time ss   
real    0m0.739s
user    0m0.019s
sys     0m0.013s
[root@localhost ~]# 
[root@localhost ~]# time netstat -at
real    2m45.907s
user    0m0.063s
sys     0m0.067s
[root@localhost ~]#

    说明:用time 命令分别获取通过netstat和ss命令获取程序和概要占用资源所使用的时间。在服务器连接数比较多的时候,netstat的效率完全没法和ss比。